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History of the Koine (common) Greek word Ekklesia

Some information copied from Wikipedia.

In the English language there is no word equivalent for the Greek Bible word “Ekklesia.” The false Bible translation of the name “church” is a name of blasphemy (a name that deceives and confuses the holy people of God).  The false word “church” is mistranslated in all the most popular Bibles does not ever get close to the true word definition of the hot militant warfare of the true Bible word Ekklesia. Then to translate correctly the Bible word “Ekklesia” must be transliterated into the English just like the Bible translator Jerome did for the Latin Vulgate Bible of the Catholic Church.  See in the Latin Vulgate Bible of the Catholic Church the Greek word Ekklesia is transliterated correct as the Latin word “Ecclesiam. “ (transliterated by Jerome in about 385 CE.) 

Ruling members of the Catholic Church hate the Latin word Ecclesiam written near one hundred times in the Catholic Latin Vulgate Bible because Ekklesia (Ecclesiam)  is designed by God as warfare needed to protect the interpretation of the Ekklesia (Ecclesiam)  Bible.

 Every Bible student must learn what the purpose and what the function of the Ekklesia of Christ is and how the Ekklesia is to protect the interpretation of the Bible.

Here is the command of God in the purpose of the Ekklesia of Christ. 

I believe here is a good place to show the word of Christ giving his purpose of his Ekklesia.

Matthew 16:18} And I also say unto you, that you are Petros [the Small Stone]  but on [me] this Petra [the unconquerable mountain fortress], I will edify [the court of] my Ekklesia; and [in the life or death warfare] the gates of Hades shall not prevail against her [my Ekklesia].      {16:19} I will give unto you [my Ekklesia] the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and what ever you [my Ekklesia] shall bind on earth is already bound in heaven [Amplifying in brackets is mine.]  This translation from the Ekklesia Bible is from facts discovered about “Petra” “The unconquerable mountain fortress” rediscovered in ancient Jordan in 1882).

There is different history of how the Fortress of “Petra” was named. Some are teaching it was the Romans that gave the Greek name “Petra”  to the mountain fortress of Petra. Go figure.

This Petra (unconquerable mountain fortress located in the promised land remained unknown to the West and to Bible translators until it was rediscovered in 1812 by Johann Ludwig Burckhardt (see Wikipedia).

Ekklesia Bible translation Matthew {18:15} And if your brother sin against you, go, show him his fault between you and him alone: if he hear you, you have gained your brother. {18:16} But if he hear [you] not, take with you one or two more, that at the mouth of two witnesses or three every word may be established. {18:17} And if he refuse to hear them, tell it unto the Ekklesia: and if he refuse to hear the Ekklesia also, let him be unto you as the Gentile and the tax collector. {18:18} Verily I say unto you, what things so ever you [the Ekklesia] shall bind on earth shall be what is [already] bound in heaven; and what things so ever you [the Ekklesia] shall loose on earth shall be what is [already] loosed in heaven.

The word Ekklesia demands that holy people should gather and be open, fair and honest and agape love (create from the seat of human emotions a genuine benevolent care for the welfare) of all others. Consider and reason the views of others that hold a different understanding of law [instructions from God] that is different from their own according. 

After any deliberation on any dispute over law, for sake of unity, the entire assembly agrees to abide by the understanding of the written law of God confirmed by the majority. The reasoning is if God trust the majority though the conduct of the court of the Ekklesia then the minority should also trust the decisions on instructions from God confirmed by the majority. See how the entire Ekklesia handles any dispute over law, doctrine (or instructions) from God in this example see Acts chapter 15  (End of comment).

 

We think here the translation in the Ekklesia Bible of the incident of Paul and Barnabas in Ephesus would be of interest to some because most Bible translators refuse to translate clearly this incident showing the purpose of Ekklesia is to protect the interpretation of law.  Acts 19. {19:35} And when the town clerk had quieted the multitude, he said, you men of  Ephesus, what man is there who knows not that the city of the Ephesians is temple-keeper of the great Diana, and of the [image] which fell down from Jupiter? {19:36} Seeing then that these things cannot be gainsaying, you ought to be quiet, and to do nothing rash. {19:37} For you have brought [here] these men, who are neither robbers of Ekklesias nor blasphemers of our goddess. {19:38} If therefore Demetrius, and the craftsmen that are with him, have a matter against any man, the lawful courts [of the Ekklesia] are open, and there are Ekklesia debaters: let them accuse one another. {19:39} But if you seek anything about other matters, it shall be established in the lawful [court of] the Ekklesia. {19:40} For indeed we are in danger to be accused concerning this day’s riot, there being no cause [for it]: and as touching it we shall not be able to give account of this concourse. {19:41} And when he had thus spoken, he dismissed the Ekklesia [of Diana].

 

Ekklesia the ancient and the modern Latin spelling of ecclesia or the Greek is written Ekklesia (Greek: ἐκκλησία) was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens during its “Golden Age” (480–404 BCE). It was the popular assembly, open only to all male citizens with 2 years of military service.

Comment by Will Wade, In the Ekklesia of Christ the women are allowed to gather and listen in the function of the Ekklesia.  The women are not allowed to speak in the Ekklesia but the women of the Ekklesia are allowed to vote on any occasion.

 

 (1Cor. 14:34} let the women keep silence in the Ekklesia: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but let them be in subjection, as also said the [written] law [through Moses]. {14:35} And if they would learn anything, let them ask their own husbands at home: for it is shameful for a woman to speak in the Ekklesia.

The women under The Old and New Testament held a special place as the life giving source of the entire people of God. Their ancient unforgiving environment requires full time struggle giving attention to procreation of new life and full time women with their spare time helping other women. Never is there ever a need for a holy woman to neglect her duties as a holy woman of God or to spend years in Bible research and to preach or to go to war. 

The more fair and equal laws of slavery given by Solon to the Greeks in Athens were similar to the laws of the Hebrews. It is believed (by the editor) that the ancient law were copied (some six hundred years BCE) by Solon in part from the laws of the Hebrew Old Testament Torah. The purpose of it was to give some of the fairer and equal laws of the Hebrews to the Greeks in Athens. The written law through Moses concerning freeing slaves was more fair and equitable given by Solon to Greeks of Athens Greece.  Centuries later the Jews knew these parts of the law through Moses were copied in the sixth century BCE by the Greek Law giver Solon. 

The more common Hebrew word “Qahal” or the purpose of the court of council of  “Ekklesia” is made by Solon to protect the interpretation of the new law from the rich and the powerful.   “Ekklesia’ or Polemics (warfare) through court is implemented by Solon to keep the rich and the powerful from changing law by misinterpreting it. Solon established the purpose of the Greek word “Ekklesia” (warfare Greek polemics) to protect the interpretation of law.  (End of comment.)

Etymology and Equivalent of word meaning of the Old Testament “Ekklesia.”

The Hebrew word “qahal,” which is a close etymological relation of the name of Qoheleth (Ecclesiastes or preacher), comes from a root meaning “convoked [group]”;[3] its Arabic cognate is, قَالَqāla, means to speak.[1]

Where the Masoretic Text of the Jews uses the term qahal, the Septuagint usually uses the Koine or common Greek term Ekklesia, ἐκκλησία,[1] which means “summoned group” (literally, “they who are called out”) .[4][5] However, in one particular part of the Priestly Code, the Greek Septuagint of the Jews instead uses the term συναγωγή,[6] literally meaning “gathering”,[7] where the Masoretic Text uses the Hebrew word qahal.[8] This last term is the origin of the Greek Septuagint word “synagogue”.

Thus, the usual translation of qahal is “congregation of the court” or “assembly of the court or council”, although אֲסֻפּ֑וֹת asuppot,[9] עֲצָרָה aṣarah,[10] עֵדָה ʿedah,[11] מוֹעֵד moʿed,[12] מִקְרָא miqra,[13] and סוֹד sod,[14] are also usually translated like this.[1]

 

Comment by Will Wade; Note this translation from the Septuagint that explains the judicial purpose of the entire court of Ekklesia is to determine truth in law to stop division. Scholarly Judges are elected to lead in discussions or in deliberation over the differed understanding law (instructions) from the law giver Yahweh. The entire Ekklesia must be present to hear any deliberation over differences in understanding the law and then the entire Ekklesia will make the final judgment. Judgment of the law is never to be made by only a few.

Now let us examine some Greek Septuagint Old Testament verses about the purpose of the Ekklesia.

Genesis {49:5} Simeon and Levi are brethren; Weapons of violence are their swords. {49:6} O my soul, come not you into their Ekklesia, my glory, you be not united; For in their anger they slew a man, And in their self-will they hocked an ox. {49:7} A cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; And their wrath, for it was cruel: I will divide them in Jacob, And scatter them in Israel.

1) The Main Purpose of Ekklesia is to lawfully unite and interpret law to keep united through the function of the entire Ekklesia.

 (End of comment Will Wade).  

In particular, the Biblical text consistently distinguishes between ʿedah and qahal.[1] One passage especially makes the distinction clear;[1] part of the Priestly Code discusses what to do if “the whole Israelite [‘edah] commits a sin and the [qahal] is not aware of it[.]”[15] Scholars conclude that the qahal must be a judicial body composed of representatives of the ʿedah;[1] in some biblical passages, ʿedah is more accurately translated as “swarm”.[1][16]/

Addendum  by Will Wade.  See this Bible translation from the Greek Septuagint.

Numbers {20:6} And Moses and Aaron went from the presence of the congregation unto the door of the tent of meeting, and fell upon their faces: and the glory of Yahweh appeared unto them. {20:7} And Yahweh spoke unto Moses, saying, {20:8} Take the rod, and call an Ekklesia of the congregation, you, and Aaron your brother, and speak you unto the rock before their eyes, that it give forth its water; and you shall bring forth to them water out of the rock; so you shall give the congregation and their cattle drink. {20:9} And Moses took the rod from before Yahweh, as he commanded him.     {20:10} And Moses and Aaron held an Ekklesia of the congregation together before the rock, and he said unto them, Hear now, you rebels; shall we bring you forth water out of this rock? {20:11} And Moses lifted up his hand, and smote the rock with his rod twice: and water came forth abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their cattle.

Precise obedience to God sanctifies God. To add to the command of God removes sanctifying God.   Moses became an unbeliever in God when he broke the silence of God by hitting the rock when God commands to “speak to the rock” {20:12} And Yahweh said unto Moses and Aaron, Because you believed not in me, to sanctify me in the eyes of the children of Israel, therefore you shall not bring this assembly into the land which I have given them.

Deut 9:10} And Yahweh delivered unto me the two tables of stone written with the finger of God; and on them [was written] according to all the words, which Yahweh spoke with you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the Ekklesia. {9:11} And it came to pass at the end of forty days and forty nights, that Yahweh gave me the two tables of stone, even the tables of the covenant.

 In 594 BCE, Solon the law giver allowed all Athenian (only) men citizens to participate in the function and vote in the Ekklesia, regardless of class, even the thetes. The thetes (Greek: θῆτες, thêtes, sing. θής, thēs, “serf”) were the lowest social class of citizens in ancient Athens after the political reforms of Solon. The thetes were those who were workers for wages, or had less than 200 medimnoi (or their equivalent) as yearly income.

The medimno was a unit of measure of capacity for the arid, whose absolute value varied from one location to another, as indeed occurred for all the units of measurement of the ancient world [2] .

The medimno was a unit of measurement of food and used by Solon to construct the timocratic system at the base of Athenian society ( 594 BC ). It represented the unity of primary resources (food) that could be produced for the community. A medimno corresponded to 6 sestieri, a unit that in turn corresponded to 8 chenici, and each chenice was worth 4 cotili , according to the Greek system of measurement of capacity.

The Court of the entire Ekklesia assembly in Athens was responsible for declaring war, military strategy and electing the strategoi and other officials. It was responsible for nominating and electing magistrates, thus indirectly electing the members of the Areopagus. The Ekklesia had the final say on legislation and the right to call magistrates to account after their year of office. In the 5th century BC its members numbered about 43,000 people. It would have been difficult, however, for non-wealthy people outside of the urban center of Athens to attend until payments for attendance were introduced in the late 5th century. It originally met once every month, but later it met three or four times per month. The agenda for the Ekklesia was established by the Boule, the popular council. Votes were taken by a show of hands, counting of stones and voting using broken pottery. The assembly consists of: the general(s), a little group of daily government and judges.

Comment by Will Wade; In the Ekklesia in Athens, There was a penalty for raising an unfounded dispute over understanding law from the law giver Solon.  Any man that raises a dispute and the dispute is deliberated by the entire assembly. If the Ekklesia determines that the dispute was consider by the majority to be unfounded and divisive then the man that raised the unfounded dispute was ostracized or forced by law to leave Athens for ten years. (End of comment.)

A quorum of 6,000 members was required sometimes to do business (by vote). The Ekklesia was elected by lot annually by the Boule or council. Some of their power under Solon was delegated to the Court by Pericles in his reforms.

In ancient Greece an ekklesiasterion was a building specifically built for the purpose of holding the meetings of the Ekklesia. Like many other cities Athens did not have an ekklesiasterion. Instead, the regular meetings of the assembly were held on the Pnyx and two annual meetings took place in the Theater of Dionysus. Around 300 BC all the meetings of the Ekklesia were moved to the theater. The meetings of the assembly could attract large audiences: 6,000 citizens might have attended in Athens during the fifth century BC.[1]

A police force of 300 Scythian slaves carried red ochre-stained ropes to induce the citizens who loitered in the agora of Athens to attend the meetings of the assembly. Anyone with red-stained clothes who was not in the meeting was liable to pay a penalty.[2][3]

Contrast the Greek “Apella” of Troy Greece to the Greek Ekklesia of Athens Greece.

Etymology of the Greek word “Apella” of Troy Greece.

The Apella in Troy was different from the Ekklesia in Athens.  In Troy the Apella was ruled by a “cult” and responsible for electing men to the gerousia for life similar to judges of the occult (occulting part light and part dark)  of the supreme court of the United State is elected for life. Candidates were selected from the aristocrats and presented before the Apella. The candidate who received the loudest applause became a member of the gerousia.

The Apella also elected the five ephors annually. Ephors presided over meetings of the gerousia and the Apella. They could not run for re-election.

The gerousia presented motions before the Apella. The Entire Apella in Troy was controlled by a “Cult” of the rich and more powerful and did not allow the entire assembly to vote to determine truth in the source of any Laws like the law was determined in Athens by the established Ekklesia from the law giver Solon.

 The entire assembly in the Apella only voted on the motions made by the wealthy or the more powerful rulers. However, unlike the Ekklesia in Athens, the Apella in Troy did not allow Polemic (controlled warfare) debate like the Ekklesia had a polemic debate in Athens; the Apella in Troy merely approved or disapproved of measures. Moreover, the gerousia always had the power to veto the decision made by the entire Apella.   Agape